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Series.to_json(path_or_buf=None, orient=None, date_format=None, double_precision=10, force_ascii=True, date_unit='ms', default_handler=None, lines=False)[source]

Convert the object to a JSON string.

Note NaN’s and None will be converted to null and datetime objects will be converted to UNIX timestamps.


path_or_buf : the path or buffer to write the result string

if this is None, return a StringIO of the converted string

orient : string

  • Series

    • default is ‘index’
    • allowed values are: {‘split’,’records’,’index’}
  • DataFrame

    • default is ‘columns’
    • allowed values are: {‘split’,’records’,’index’,’columns’,’values’}
  • The format of the JSON string

    • split : dict like {index -> [index], columns -> [columns], data -> [values]}

    • records : list like [{column -> value}, ... , {column -> value}]

    • index : dict like {index -> {column -> value}}

    • columns : dict like {column -> {index -> value}}

    • values : just the values array

    • table : dict like {‘schema’: {schema}, ‘data’: {data}} describing the data, and the data component is like orient='records'.

      Changed in version 0.20.0.

date_format : {None, ‘epoch’, ‘iso’}

Type of date conversion. epoch = epoch milliseconds, iso = ISO8601. The default depends on the orient. For orient=’table’, the default is ‘iso’. For all other orients, the default is ‘epoch’.

double_precision : The number of decimal places to use when encoding

floating point values, default 10.

force_ascii : force encoded string to be ASCII, default True.

date_unit : string, default ‘ms’ (milliseconds)

The time unit to encode to, governs timestamp and ISO8601 precision. One of ‘s’, ‘ms’, ‘us’, ‘ns’ for second, millisecond, microsecond, and nanosecond respectively.

default_handler : callable, default None

Handler to call if object cannot otherwise be converted to a suitable format for JSON. Should receive a single argument which is the object to convert and return a serialisable object.

lines : boolean, default False

If ‘orient’ is ‘records’ write out line delimited json format. Will throw ValueError if incorrect ‘orient’ since others are not list like.

New in version 0.19.0.


same type as input object with filtered info axis

See also



>>> df = pd.DataFrame([['a', 'b'], ['c', 'd']],
...                   index=['row 1', 'row 2'],
...                   columns=['col 1', 'col 2'])
>>> df.to_json(orient='split')
'{"columns":["col 1","col 2"],
  "index":["row 1","row 2"],

Encoding/decoding a Dataframe using 'index' formatted JSON:

>>> df.to_json(orient='index')
'{"row 1":{"col 1":"a","col 2":"b"},"row 2":{"col 1":"c","col 2":"d"}}'

Encoding/decoding a Dataframe using 'records' formatted JSON. Note that index labels are not preserved with this encoding.

>>> df.to_json(orient='records')
'[{"col 1":"a","col 2":"b"},{"col 1":"c","col 2":"d"}]'

Encoding with Table Schema

>>> df.to_json(orient='table')
'{"schema": {"fields": [{"name": "index", "type": "string"},
                        {"name": "col 1", "type": "string"},
                        {"name": "col 2", "type": "string"}],
             "primaryKey": "index",
             "pandas_version": "0.20.0"},
  "data": [{"index": "row 1", "col 1": "a", "col 2": "b"},
           {"index": "row 2", "col 1": "c", "col 2": "d"}]}'
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