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pandas.Panel.resample

Panel.resample(rule, how=None, axis=0, fill_method=None, closed=None, label=None, convention='start', kind=None, loffset=None, limit=None, base=0, on=None, level=None)[source]

Convenience method for frequency conversion and resampling of time series. Object must have a datetime-like index (DatetimeIndex, PeriodIndex, or TimedeltaIndex), or pass datetime-like values to the on or level keyword.

Parameters:

rule : string

the offset string or object representing target conversion

axis : int, optional, default 0

closed : {‘right’, ‘left’}

Which side of bin interval is closed

label : {‘right’, ‘left’}

Which bin edge label to label bucket with

convention : {‘start’, ‘end’, ‘s’, ‘e’}

For PeriodIndex only, controls whether to use the start or end of rule

loffset : timedelta

Adjust the resampled time labels

base : int, default 0

For frequencies that evenly subdivide 1 day, the “origin” of the aggregated intervals. For example, for ‘5min’ frequency, base could range from 0 through 4. Defaults to 0

on : string, optional

For a DataFrame, column to use instead of index for resampling. Column must be datetime-like.

New in version 0.19.0.

level : string or int, optional

For a MultiIndex, level (name or number) to use for resampling. Level must be datetime-like.

New in version 0.19.0.

Notes

To learn more about the offset strings, please see this link.

Examples

Start by creating a series with 9 one minute timestamps.

>>> index = pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=9, freq='T')
>>> series = pd.Series(range(9), index=index)
>>> series
2000-01-01 00:00:00    0
2000-01-01 00:01:00    1
2000-01-01 00:02:00    2
2000-01-01 00:03:00    3
2000-01-01 00:04:00    4
2000-01-01 00:05:00    5
2000-01-01 00:06:00    6
2000-01-01 00:07:00    7
2000-01-01 00:08:00    8
Freq: T, dtype: int64

Downsample the series into 3 minute bins and sum the values of the timestamps falling into a bin.

>>> series.resample('3T').sum()
2000-01-01 00:00:00     3
2000-01-01 00:03:00    12
2000-01-01 00:06:00    21
Freq: 3T, dtype: int64

Downsample the series into 3 minute bins as above, but label each bin using the right edge instead of the left. Please note that the value in the bucket used as the label is not included in the bucket, which it labels. For example, in the original series the bucket 2000-01-01 00:03:00 contains the value 3, but the summed value in the resampled bucket with the label``2000-01-01 00:03:00`` does not include 3 (if it did, the summed value would be 6, not 3). To include this value close the right side of the bin interval as illustrated in the example below this one.

>>> series.resample('3T', label='right').sum()
2000-01-01 00:03:00     3
2000-01-01 00:06:00    12
2000-01-01 00:09:00    21
Freq: 3T, dtype: int64

Downsample the series into 3 minute bins as above, but close the right side of the bin interval.

>>> series.resample('3T', label='right', closed='right').sum()
2000-01-01 00:00:00     0
2000-01-01 00:03:00     6
2000-01-01 00:06:00    15
2000-01-01 00:09:00    15
Freq: 3T, dtype: int64

Upsample the series into 30 second bins.

>>> series.resample('30S').asfreq()[0:5] #select first 5 rows
2000-01-01 00:00:00   0.0
2000-01-01 00:00:30   NaN
2000-01-01 00:01:00   1.0
2000-01-01 00:01:30   NaN
2000-01-01 00:02:00   2.0
Freq: 30S, dtype: float64

Upsample the series into 30 second bins and fill the NaN values using the pad method.

>>> series.resample('30S').pad()[0:5]
2000-01-01 00:00:00    0
2000-01-01 00:00:30    0
2000-01-01 00:01:00    1
2000-01-01 00:01:30    1
2000-01-01 00:02:00    2
Freq: 30S, dtype: int64

Upsample the series into 30 second bins and fill the NaN values using the bfill method.

>>> series.resample('30S').bfill()[0:5]
2000-01-01 00:00:00    0
2000-01-01 00:00:30    1
2000-01-01 00:01:00    1
2000-01-01 00:01:30    2
2000-01-01 00:02:00    2
Freq: 30S, dtype: int64

Pass a custom function via apply

>>> def custom_resampler(array_like):
...     return np.sum(array_like)+5
>>> series.resample('3T').apply(custom_resampler)
2000-01-01 00:00:00     8
2000-01-01 00:03:00    17
2000-01-01 00:06:00    26
Freq: 3T, dtype: int64

For a Series with a PeriodIndex, the keyword convention can be used to control whether to use the start or end of rule.

>>> s = pd.Series([1, 2], index=pd.period_range('2012-01-01',
                                                freq='A',
                                                periods=2))
>>> s
2012    1
2013    2
Freq: A-DEC, dtype: int64

Resample by month using ‘start’ convention. Values are assigned to the first month of the period.

>>> s.resample('M', convention='start').asfreq().head()
2012-01    1.0
2012-02    NaN
2012-03    NaN
2012-04    NaN
2012-05    NaN
Freq: M, dtype: float64

Resample by month using ‘end’ convention. Values are assigned to the last month of the period.

>>> s.resample('M', convention='end').asfreq()
2012-12    1.0
2013-01    NaN
2013-02    NaN
2013-03    NaN
2013-04    NaN
2013-05    NaN
2013-06    NaN
2013-07    NaN
2013-08    NaN
2013-09    NaN
2013-10    NaN
2013-11    NaN
2013-12    2.0
Freq: M, dtype: float64

For DataFrame objects, the keyword on can be used to specify the column instead of the index for resampling.

>>> df = pd.DataFrame(data=9*[range(4)], columns=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'])
>>> df['time'] = pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=9, freq='T')
>>> df.resample('3T', on='time').sum()
                     a  b  c  d
time
2000-01-01 00:00:00  0  3  6  9
2000-01-01 00:03:00  0  3  6  9
2000-01-01 00:06:00  0  3  6  9

For a DataFrame with MultiIndex, the keyword level can be used to specify on level the resampling needs to take place.

>>> time = pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=5, freq='T')
>>> df2 = pd.DataFrame(data=10*[range(4)],
                       columns=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'],
                       index=pd.MultiIndex.from_product([time, [1, 2]])
                       )
>>> df2.resample('3T', level=0).sum()
                     a  b   c   d
2000-01-01 00:00:00  0  6  12  18
2000-01-01 00:03:00  0  4   8  12
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